What are the Functions, Types, and How Does a Hydraulic Pump Work?

Posted on

Cara Kerja Pompa Hidrolik

Hydraulic pumps in heavy equipment are the main component in the hydraulic system used to generate the hydraulic fluid flow required to drive the hydraulic components of the machine. Heavy equipment such as excavators, loaders, bulldozers, and cranes often use hydraulic systems to provide the power and control required in various operations.

A hydraulic pump is responsible for converting mechanical energy into hydraulic energy. It works by drawing hydraulic fluid from the tank and pumping it into the hydraulic system with a certain pressure.

Hydraulic pumps on machines are usually integrated with a larger hydraulic system, which includes hydraulic cylinders, control valves, and fluid reservoirs. This system allows the machine to perform various functions, such as lifting a load, moving a bucket, or controlling machine movement according to the needs of the job.

It is important to care for and maintain the hydraulic pump to keep the machine functioning properly. Wear and tear or damage to the hydraulic pump can result in reduced machine performance and even damage to the hydraulic system as a whole. Therefore, regular maintenance and timely repairs are essential to ensure optimal performance and long service life of the machine. Check out more details in the following article TransTRACK!

What is the Function of Hydraulic Pump in Heavy Equipment?

Hydraulic pumps in heavy equipment have several key functions in the hydraulic system. The main function of a hydraulic pump is to convert mechanical energy into hydraulic energy, which is then used to drive the hydraulic components of the machine. Here are some of the main functions of hydraulic pumps in heavy equipment:

Generates Hydraulic Fluid Flow

A hydraulic pump is responsible for taking hydraulic fluid from the tank and pumping it into the hydraulic system. This creates the fluid flow required to perform various hydraulic functions on the machine.

Apply Pressure

A hydraulic pump creates pressure in a hydraulic system. This pressure is needed to move the hydraulic cylinders and allow the machine to do its job, such as lifting weights or moving moving parts.

Drive Hydraulic Cylinder

The pressure generated by a hydraulic pump is used to drive a hydraulic cylinder. These cylinders are often used to control the movement of various machine parts, such as the bucket on an excavator or the blade on a bulldozer.

Operating Control Valves

Hydraulic pumps can work with control valves to set the direction of fluid flow and control the movement of hydraulic components. This allows the machine operator to have precise control over the function of the machine.

Enable Other Hydraulic Functions

Hydraulic pumps can also be used to activate various other hydraulic functions, such as hydraulic braking systems, lubricating systems, and hydraulic roller systems in heavy machinery.

As such, hydraulic pumps on machines play a key role in providing the power and control required to perform various construction, excavation or material manipulation tasks. This function of the hydraulic pump allows the machine to operate efficiently and reliably under various working conditions.

Types of Hydraulic Pumps on Heavy Equipment

There are several types of hydraulic pumps used on heavy equipment, and the choice of pump type usually depends on the specific application and requirements of the machine. Some common types of hydraulic pumps used on heavy equipment include:

Piston Pump (Axial or Radial)

Piston pumps use the motion of a piston to generate fluid flow. There are two main types of piston pumps: axial piston pumps, where the piston moves parallel to the rotary axis, and radial piston pumps, where the piston moves radially from the rotary center.

Gear Pump

Gear pumps use gears to produce fluid flow. There are two main types of gear pumps: external gear pumps, where external gears rotate around stationary internal gears, and internal gear pumps, where internal gears move around external gears.

Vane Pump

A vane pump uses a spring-loaded leaf (vane) that rotates or moves to produce fluid flow. There are two main types of vane pumps: fixed displacement vane pumps, where the volume is fixed, and variable displacement vane pumps, where the volume can be adjusted.

Crank Piston Pump (Swashplate)

This type is often found on heavy equipment. The piston is connected to the crank and can move back and forth according to the rotation of the crank.

Pump Rotor (Gerotor or Geroler)

Rotor pumps, such as gerotor and geroler, use a rotating rotor within a stator to produce fluid flow.

Membrane Pump

Membrane pumps use a moving membrane to generate pressure changes and move the fluid.

Each type of pump has certain advantages and disadvantages, as well as specific applications where performance is optimal. The selection of the appropriate pump type will be influenced by factors such as the required working pressure, machine speed, efficiency, and the specific task being performed by the machine.

How Does a Hydraulic Pump Work on Heavy Equipment

How a hydraulic pump works in heavy equipment can vary depending on the type of pump used. However, in general, the basic steps in how a hydraulic pump works involve taking fluid from the tank, increasing pressure, and transferring the fluid to the hydraulic system to drive hydraulic components. Here is an overview of how a hydraulic pump works on heavy equipment:

How Does a Hydraulic Pump Work: 1. Fluid Intake from Tank

  • Hydraulic pumps start by drawing hydraulic fluid from a storage tank. This fluid is usually a special hydraulic oil that has good lubricating properties and resistance to high pressure.

How Does a Hydraulic Pump Work: 2. Pressure Increase

  • Once the fluid is drawn from the tank, the hydraulic pump increases the pressure in the fluid. This is done by using the pump’s internal mechanism, such as a piston, gear, or vane, to apply pressure to the fluid.

How Does a Hydraulic Pump Work: 3. Fluid Transfer

  • The pressure generated by the pump is used to move hydraulic fluid into the machine’s hydraulic system. This fluid flows through lines and valves to hydraulic components such as cylinders, hydraulic motors, or control valves.

How Does a Hydraulic Pump Work: 4. Movement of Hydraulic Components

  • Hydraulic fluid that reaches a hydraulic component, such as a hydraulic cylinder, causes movement of that component. For example, if fluid is delivered to a hydraulic cylinder, the piston in the cylinder will move, which in turn moves the part connected to the piston.

How Does a Hydraulic Pump Work: 5. Fluid Return

  • Once the fluid has been used to drive the hydraulic components, it is returned to the tank for reprocessing. This cycle continues as long as the machine is operating.

It is important to remember that some hydraulic pumps in machines, such as variable piston pumps, can be adjusted to change the volume or discharge of the fluid according to the need. This provides precise control over the motion and power generated by the machine.

How hydraulic pumps work in heavy equipment is very important for the understanding of operators and technicians in caring for and maintaining the hydraulic system properly so that the machine can operate efficiently and reliably.

In maintaining optimal machine performance, an in-depth understanding of how hydraulic pumps work is key. However, to maximize maintenance efficiency, a sophisticated and up-to-date solution is essential. This is where TransTRACK’s Vehicle Maintenance System becomes an indispensable tool.

With seamless integration in the TransTRACK system, monitoring and maintenance of hydraulic pumps on machines becomes more efficient and well-managed. The real-time monitoring feature allows operators and technicians to gain immediate insight into hydraulic pump performance, potential issues, and timely maintenance schedules.

Explore more about this advanced feature of the  Vehicle Maintenance System. With TransTRACK, you can optimize uptime, prevent unexpected breakdowns, and increase the lifespan of your machine. Make this system a trusted partner in ensuring that every hydraulic pump is working to its full potential, allowing your machine to operate at peak performance.


vehicle engine