Car Batteries, What are the Functions and Types and How to Maintain Them?

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Car Batteries

An electric car battery is a battery used to store energy used to drive the electric motor in an electric car. These batteries are specially designed for electric cars and consist of many small battery cells connected together to form a large battery.

These batteries can be recharged using a charger available at home or at a public charging station. They can also be recharged using energy generated by braking regeneration, where the energy normally lost when the car stops is converted into electrical energy and stored back into the battery.

Electric car batteries come in different types and sizes, depending on the type of car and the battery capacity required to run the car. These batteries are constantly evolving, and manufacturers are constantly looking for ways to increase battery capacity, extend battery life, and make them more efficient and affordable.

What is the Function of Electric Car Batteries

The main function of this battery is to store electrical energy that will be used to drive the electric motor in the car. This battery acts as the main power source of the electric car, and without the battery, the electric car cannot operate.

In addition, it can also perform some additional functions, such as:

Braking regeneration

These batteries can store the energy generated during braking, and then use it to propel the car again. This can improve energy efficiency and help extend the range of the car.

Temperature regulation

Electric car batteries need to be kept at the right temperature to operate effectively. Some of these battery systems have internal temperature settings to maintain optimal conditions for the battery.

Cell balancing

Since electric car batteries are made up of many small cells, these cells need to be kept balanced in terms of capacity and health. Some of these Battery systems have cell balancers that can balance the battery cells to keep them in good shape.

Overall, these batteries are essential in running an electric car and play a key role in the energy efficiency and performance of the car.

Electric Car Battery Types

The following energy storage systems are used in all electric vehicles, PHEVs, and HEVs.

Lithium-Ion Battery

Lithium-ion batteries are currently used in most portable consumer electronic devices such as cell phones and laptops due to their high energy per unit mass compared to other electrical energy storage systems. They also have a high power-to-weight ratio, high energy efficiency, good high-temperature performance, and low self-discharge. Most lithium-ion battery components are recyclable, but material recovery costs remain a challenge for the industry. The US Department of Energy is also supporting the Lithium-Ion Battery Recycling Prize to develop and demonstrate profitable solutions for collecting, sorting, storing, and transporting used and discarded lithium-ion batteries for eventual recycling and material recovery. Most current all-electric vehicles and PHEVs use lithium-ion batteries, although the exact chemistry is often different from consumer electronics batteries. Research and development is ongoing to reduce their relatively high cost, extend their useful life, and address safety concerns with respect to overheating.

Nickel-Metal Hydride Batteries

Nickel-metal hydride batteries, which are used routinely in computers and medical equipment, offer reasonable specific energy and specific power capabilities. Nickel-metal hydride batteries have a longer cycle life than lead-acid batteries and are safe and resistant to abuse. These batteries have been widely used in HEVs. The main challenges of nickel-metal hydride batteries are their high cost, high self-discharge, and heat generation at high temperatures, as well as the need to control hydrogen loss.

Lead-Acid Batteries

Lead-acid batteries can be designed to be high-powered and are inexpensive, safe, and reliable. However, low specific energy, poor cold temperature performance, and short calendar and cycle life inhibit their use. Advanced high-power lead-acid batteries are being developed, but they are only used in commercially available electric drive vehicles for auxiliary loads.


Ultracapacitors store energy in a polarized liquid between the electrodes and electrolyte. The energy storage capacity increases as the surface area of the liquid increases. Ultracapacitors can provide additional power to vehicles during acceleration and hill climbing and help recover braking energy. They may also be useful as secondary energy storage devices in electric drive vehicles as they help the electrochemical battery load power the load.

Electric Car Battery Lifespan

The lifespan of electric car batteries depends on a variety of factors, including the type of battery, usage conditions, and operating environment. Under ideal conditions, these batteries can last for 8 to 10 years or more.

However, some factors can shorten the life of these batteries, such as:

  1. Frequent and improper charging: Too frequent or improper charging can shorten the life of electric car batteries. Ideally, it should be recharged when the battery reaches a level of about 20-30% and stopped when it reaches 80-90%.
  2. Extreme temperature conditions: Extremely low or extremely high temperatures can shorten the life of these batteries. Therefore, it is important to keep the battery temperature within the right range when operating an electric car.
  3. Lifespan: The longer this battery is used, the more its performance degrades and the harder it is for the battery to store energy efficiently.
  4. Operating conditions: Electric car usage conditions such as frequent acceleration and high electricity usage can shorten the life of these batteries.

Although the lifespan of electric car batteries can be affected by several factors, manufacturers are constantly making developments to improve battery life and efficiency, so that in the future these batteries can last longer and be more durable.

How to maintain an electric car battery

Taking care of this battery is important to maintain the performance and life of this battery. Here are some ways to take care of these batteries:

  1. Recharge the battery regularly: This battery should be recharged regularly when the battery level drops below 20-30% and stopped when the battery level reaches 80-90%. Avoid overcharging or neglecting the battery.
  2. Avoid extreme temperatures: The battery must be kept at the right temperature. Avoid operating the electric car at very low or very high temperatures.
  3. Avoid excessive use of electricity: Excessive use of electricity can shorten the life of this battery. Avoid excessive use of electricity or frequent acceleration and braking.
  4. Use the right charger: Use the charger recommended by the manufacturer for this battery. Avoid using an unsuitable charger or a charger that is not suitable for this battery.
  5. Check the battery condition regularly: Perform regular battery condition checks, including capacity, temperature, and battery cell balance. If there are any problems, address them immediately to extend the life of these batteries.
  6. Keep the battery clean: Ensure that this battery is always clean and dry. Avoid direct contact with water or chemicals.

By taking good care of your electric car battery, you can extend the battery life and maximize the performance of your electric car.

However, if you are still confused about how to maintain it, you can use  Vehicle Maintenance System from TransTRACK to perform maintenance on your fleet and vehicles. By using VMS TransTRACK, you can get vehicle repair and maintenance, scheduling systems, and mechanics. Start using  VMS and take better care of your vehicle!


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